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Function of Chondroitin Sulfate



Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a class of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, present in human and animal connective tissue, mainly distributed in cartilage, bone, tendon, sarcolemma and vascular wall, by D-glucaldehyde Acid and N-acetylgalactosamine repeating disaccharide units, the relative molecular mass is generally 25000 ~ 30000.


1, in the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the application of research
(1) treatment of osteoarthritis: to reduce pain in patients with osteoarthritis, improve joint function, reduce joint swelling and fluid, to prevent the knee and the joints of the joints of the narrow space.
(2) cartilage protection: stimulation of chondrocytes synthesis of collagen, proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid, control the formation of new cartilage tissue.
(3) treatment of chronic cystitis: early repair of membranous proteoglycan damage to avoid the chronic evolution of cystitis, chronic cystitis and bladder pain syndrome / interstitial cystitis and other new diseases of bladder disease.


2, in the immune regulation of the application
(1) to enhance immune function: to promote immunoglobulin G (IgG) secretion increased humoral immune function.
(2) anti-allergy: Th2-type cytokine-induced Th1 / Th2 imbalance caused by inhibition of Th2 type cytokines (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) secretion, inhibition of antigen-induced immunoglobulin E (IgE ) Production, play a role in the treatment of allergic reactions.
(3) inhibition of tumor: the body of cytokines IL-2 significantly increased and IL-6 content decreased by increasing immune function to inhibit tumor growth.
(4) treatment of psoriasis: reduce interleukin IL-1β-induced protein kinase and signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, reduce proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β synthesis, play a role in the treatment of psoriasis.


3, in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease research applications
(1) anticoagulant and anti-thrombosis: through the fibrinogen system to play anticoagulant effect; change the formation of thrombosis structure, promote blood flow, can effectively delay and prevent arterial occlusion.
(2) lipid-lowering lipid-lowering effect: to increase the blood of high-density lipoprotein, reduce the blood of mice in the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein effect, play lipid-lowering lipid.
(3) anti-atherosclerosis: regulation of macrophages around the cholesterol accumulation, and by regulating the regulation of immunoglobulin and amyloid, reduce local cholesterol deposition, play the role of anti-atherosclerosis.



4, in the central nervous system protection applications
(1) the protection and repair of neurons: nerve injury after axonal regeneration and repair inhibition, the central nervous system damage, by adding chondroitinase can decompose chondroitin sulfate, promote neuronal growth, help Nerve function recovery.
(2) treatment of chronic nerve inflammation: by reducing TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and other cytokines expression, which play a role in improving degenerative central nervous system diseases, prevention of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.


5, in the application of antioxidants
Chondroitin sulfate can chelate with Cu, Fe and other metal ions to reduce the oxidative burst, inhibit lipid peroxidation, and thus play a role in antioxidant; chondroitin sulfate can increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mice, Aldehyde concentration, inhibition of malondialdehyde accumulation, prevention of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase passivation, so that hepatitis and cirrhosis was significantly reduced, showing its protection of oxidative stress, free The role of the base.

Chondroitin sulfate has a variety of other pharmacological activities, such as adhesion regulation, mucosal protection, anti-adhesion, promote cell proliferation, inhibition of angiogenesis, treatment of corneal injury and protection of cornea, anti-virus. At present, chondroitin sulfate is mainly used in clinical prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and ophthalmic diseases.
Chondroitin sulfate has anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection, neuroprotection, anti-oxidation, cell adhesion regulation, anti-tumor and other pharmacological activity, and long-term use of toxic side effects, is an important biochemical drugs, And virus infection, tissue repair, anti-tumor and as a drug carrier and other fields with potential application development prospects.

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